This literally fries the transformer windings and possibly the transmission line itself.
Strong solar flare creates rare magnetic ripples in Earth’s atmosphere - See more at: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2014/03/30/strong-solar-flare-creates-rare-magnetic-ripples-in-earths-atmosphere/#sthash.Cw47T4Zt.dpuf
Energy stored in twisted magnetic fields above sunspot group 2017 was released a as a strong X1-class flare at 12:52 p.m. CDT March 29. Powerful X-rays from the flare sent magnetic currents through Earth’s upper atmosphere minutes later. Credit: NASA - See more at: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2014/03/30/strong-solar-flare-creates-rare-magnetic-ripples-in-earths-atmosphere/#sthash.Ki41NHxc.dpufEnergy stored in twisted magnetic fields above sunspot group 2017 was released as a strong X1-class flare at 12:52 p.m. CDT March 29. Powerful X-rays from the flare sent magnetic currents through Earth’s upper atmosphere JUST MINUTES later.
An fast, intense X1-class solar flare yesterday afternoon not only blasted a cloud of solar electrons and protons into space but also sent magnetic ripples across Earth’s upper atmosphere creating what astronomers call a magnetic crochet. - See more at: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2014/03/30/strong-solar-flare-creates-rare-magnetic-ripples-in-earths-atmosphere/#sthash.Ki41NHxc.dpufA fast, intense X1-class solar flare not only blasted a cloud of solar electrons and protons into space but also sent magnetic ripples across Earth’s upper atmosphere creating what astronomers call a magnetic crochet.
Normally it takes an average of 4 days for a cloud of fast moving solar particles called a coronal mass ejection or CME to reach the Earth. Fast ones moving at 620 miles per second (1,000 km/sec) arrive in about 42 hours. But energy levels rose so rapidly in THIS X-1 flare that Earth’s atmosphere was affected only minutes after the onset of the storm.
A burst of X-rays from sunspot region AR 2017 arrived 8.3 minutes after the blast and increased the electrical conductivity in the D and E layers of Earth’s ionosphere by stripping electrons from the atoms there, making electric currents flow more easily. Because moving electrical currents create magnetic fields, the flare caused a sudden jump or ripple of magnetic energy to pulse through the ionosphere. As the flare subsided, those layers returned to normal.
Two M-class solar flares erupted from this active region on March 28 and March 30.
Magnetic crochets are rare because they only occur during large flares that peak quickly. They’re also typically recorded at locations where the sun is overhead at the time of the flare.
THIS X-CLASS WAS FOLLOWED BY A STUNNING M-CLASS FLARE ON APRIL 2.
Normally it takes an average of 4 days for a cloud of fast moving solar particles called a coronal mass ejection or CME to reach the Earth. Fast ones moving at 620 miles per second (1,000 km/sec) arrive in about 42 hours. But energy levels rose so rapidly in yesterday’s flare that Earth’s atmosphere was affected only minutes after the onset of the storm. - See more at: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2014/03/30/strong-solar-flare-creates-rare-magnetic-ripples-in-earths-atmosphere/#sthash.Ki41NHxc.dpufhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=_8yPQEE2Dnk
Read the documentation that’s sparking the worry about the EMP threat, in “A Nation Forsaken”.
Scientists say there will be short notice of destructive plasma cloud from solar superstorm.
Scientists around the globe are joining those in the United States in becoming alarmed at the possibility of a plasma cloud from a solar superstorm that could wipe out vast electronics networks, because they say Earth would have only a notice of about 15 minutes.
U.S. space scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrator and the National Aeronautic Space Administration’s Goddard Space Flight Center have been expressing concern over what is fast becoming a “solar storm maximum.”
And the alarms now are going off globally, with expressions of concern from European Union interests, the European Space Agency and Great Britain’s Royal Academy of Engineering, which is urging the British Space Weather Board to help that nation prepare for a massive solar flare.
“Our message is, don’t panic, but do prepare – a solar superstorm will happen one day and we need to be ready for it,” said Professor Paul Cannon who chaired the Academy’s working group.
Given the intensity of the increasing flare spewing from the sun’s surface, experts agree that scientists would have only 15 minutes of warning of an intense solar flare – a huge plasma cloud of charged particles that can become a nightmare to unguarded electronics on earth.
Geomagnetic storms also affect navigation systems where accuracy is essential. According to NOAA, accuracy of navigation systems using very low frequency signals depends on knowing the altitude of the ionosphere’s lower boundary. Aircraft and ships use these very low frequencies to determine their positions.
“During solar events and geomagnetic storms, the altitude of ionosphere’s lower boundary can change rapidly, thus introducing errors of up to several kilometers,” NOAA said.
If alerted in time to a geomagnetic storm, navigators can switch to alternative or backup navigation systems. .
In addition to communications satellites, Baker said disruption also could adversely affect ground positioning systems, or GPS, which is integral to aircraft, automobiles and even mobile phones. GPS also is affected by severe ionospheric changes from geomagnetic storms, thereby interfering with the radio wave transmissions from satellites to the ground, ships, aircraft or other satellites.
Daniel Baker, of the University of Colorado’s laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, said the highest risk from such solar storms will be to the national electrical grid system. Baker, who is a co-author of a National Research Council report on the risks from solar storms, said that evidence stemming from space weather research reveals that over the past two solar cycles, space weather has challenged the integrity of electric power.
Power surges from solar particles could blow out huge transformers which take a long time to replace. This would especially be the case if that replacement involved hundreds of giant transformers that were destroyed all at once.
In spite of the historical knowledge of these various storms over the years, NASA said that the nation’s electric power grids remain vulnerable to disruption and damage by severe space weather and have become even more so in terms of both widespread blackouts and permanent equipment damage requiring long periods of time to restore.
The reason is that electric power and more intricate and sophisticated electronics are the cornerstone of a modern society. This technology is the basis on which all other infrastructures and services depend.
The next solar storm maximum which an increasing number of scientists say would more than likely occur in 2013 or 2014 could be as massive as the 1859 Carrington Event but far more devastating.
“If it were to occur today,” the NAS report said, “(the Carrington Event storm) could have profound societal and economic consequences, with cascading effects throughout the complex and interrelated infrastructures of modern society.”
The loss of power and even backup power supplies would have a dramatic effect on water, communication, banking and finance and other critical infrastructure including government services.
“Loss of these systems for a significant period of time in even one region of the country could affect the entire nation and have international impacts,” the NAS study said.
Unless the nation is adequately protected, the sheer impact alone from such anticipated solar storms will result in the loss of critical U.S. electrical infrastructures that could send the country back into an early 19th century agrarian society. Back then, such an event would have had no effect, since there was no electricity and most people had farms and grew their own food.
Experts have warned that such a major solar storm occurrence actually could be worse than back in the 19th century due to the considerable increase in population and the total reliance by society on electricity and technology for life-sustaining needs. Besides all that, most people today don’t grow their own food.